Monday, 29 February 2016

Malayalam TV news anchor reads what Smriti Irani read, gets 2,000 threat calls, 5 arrested

ON FRIDAY night, she moderated a spirited discussion on a popular Malayalam TV news show on whether celebrating Mahishasur Jayanti could be considered an act of treason.
Since then, Sindhu Sooryakumar, chief coordinating editor of Asianet News TV, says she has received over 2,000 abusive calls on her cellphone, allegedly from activists and sympathisers of various pro-Hindutva groups, accusing her of calling Durga a “sex worker” during the show.
The irony: a video of the show, seen by The Indian Express, shows that those two words were read out by V V Rajesh, BJP state secretary, while quoting from pamphlets that he claimed were distributed on the JNU campus and later produced in Parliament by HRD Minister Smriti Irani.
On Monday, Kerala Police arrested five people based on a complaint filed by the journalist. G Sparjan Kumar, Commissioner of Police, Thiruvananthapuram city, told The Indian Express: “All of those arrested are connected to BJP, RSS and Hindu groups, including Sri Rama Sena.”
One of the five, from Thiruvananthapuram, told police that he got Sooryakumar’s number from a WhatsApp group called Sanga Dhwani, where a member shared her personal number and asked others to call and abuse her “for a Facebook post on Durga”.
Three others, who were arrested from Kannur, are members of Sri Rama Sena, the pro-Hindutva group involved in the Mangalore pub attack of 2009 and several other cases of moral policing.
“I have been getting a call every minute. The main allegation is that I abused Durga, calling her a sex worker,” Sooryakumar told The Indian Express
“Most of the abusers called me a prostitute and abused me. Some threatened me while others didn’t even know what the charge was. I got a call this morning from someone asking whether I was Durga. Another person called me sometime ago, saying I had posted something against Durga on Facebook, and that he wanted to abuse me for that,” she said.
Sooryakumar added that BJP’s Rajesh assured her that he would assist in any investigation. “He said that he has clarified the situation to many of the party’s cadre who had called him. However, his party’s leadership still hasn’t disowned the rumour being spread in their circles,” she said.
Sooryakumar added that BJP-RSS leaders of the state have also remained silent. “All they have done is issue a general statement about freedom of the press,” she said.
I was called a prostitute: Sooryakumar
On Monday, BJP’s Kerala chief Kummanam Rajasekharan evaded questions on the issue. “The BJP is a party that supports freedom of the press,” he told reporters. Later, in a Facebook post on his official account, Rajasekharan wrote that his party “has nothing to do with this issue”.
Police chief Kumar said investigators were tracing the Facebook user who first posted the rumour about Sooryakumar using derogatory words to describe Durga. He added that they were also tracing the WhatsApp groups that circulated the personal number of the journalist

Ringing Bells starts refunding money to customers for Freedom 251 mobile

Noida-based Ringing Bells, which has promised to sell smartphones for Rs 251 apiece, has started refunding money to customers due to negative speculation around its claim.
"There was a lot of negativity around us so we have decided to take money from customers only after delivering phones to them. We are refunding money to those who have paid for booking the phones and giving them an option of cash on delivery," Ringing Bells Director Mohit Goel told PTI.
About 30,000 people paid for booking the phones and over 7 crore people registered for it. The payment was facilitated by CCAvenue and PayU Biz.
"We don't want customers' money initially. We have investors to back our project. There is a business model to justify the price. We have a foolproof plan and to whomsoever we have disclosed it has agreed to it. I don't want to disclose full details as of now," Goel said.
He said the delivery of Freedom251 smartphones is expected to start in April after which the company will start the second round of bookings.
"Our payment gateway companies CCAvenue and PayU Biz have sought time till Wednesday to credit back the amount in accounts of all those who have paid. After which we will send an email seeking confirmation for cash on delivery," Goel said.
Ringing Bells President Ashok Chaddha had explained earlier that the manufacturing cost of the phone is about Rs 2,500, which will be recovered through a series of measures like economies of scale, innovative marketing, reduction in duties and creating an e-commerce marketplace.
"By going for Made in India components, we can save on the 13.8 per cent duty. Also, we will be selling online first and thus save the costs incurred on large distribution network," he said.
Chaddha also rejected speculations of the handset being subsidised by the government.
"The phone will be manufactured in Noida and Uttaranchal. Two plants will be set up for Rs 250 crore each with a capacity of 5 lakh phones. The money will come in the form of debt and equity (1.5:1)," he said.
Chaddha said the equity is being met by the promoter family of the company that is "engaged in agri-commodities business" in Uttar Pradesh but declined to give further information.
However, people in industry and some politicians expressed doubt over the claim. Telecom Minister asked the Department of Electronics and IT to look in to matter. Ringing Bells has also come under the scanner of Excise and Income Tax Departments as debates around the feasibility of offering a handset for Rs 251 rages on.
According to the sources, the I-T Department is looking into the financial structure of the company and has obtained documents, including those from the Registrar of Companies (RoC), in this regard.

Oscars 2016: 'Spotlight' wins top honour; Leonardo Dicaprio finally bags Best Actor Award

: In an underdog win for a movie about an underdog profession, the newspaper drama 'Spotlight' took best picture at a 88th Academy Awards.
Tom McCarthy's film about the Boston Globe's investigative reporting on sexual abuse by Roman Catholic priests won over the favored frontier epic 'The Revenant'. McCarthy's well-crafted procedural, led by a strong ensemble cast, had lagged in the lead-up to the Oscars, losing ground to the flashier filmmaking of Alejandro Inarritu's film.
But 'Spotlight' — an ode to the hard-nose, methodical work of a journalism increasingly seldom practiced — took the night's top honor despite winning only one other Oscar for McCarthy and Josh Singer's screenplay. Such a sparsely-awarded best picture winner hasn't happened since 1952's 'The Greatest Show On Earth'.
The night, however, belong to host Chris Rock, who launched immediately into the uproar over the lack of diversity in this year's nominees, and didn't let up. "The White People's Choice Awards," he called the Oscars, which were surrounded by protests (including one outside the Dolby Theatre by the Rev. Al Sharpton) and boycotts.
Streaks, broken and extended, dominated much of the evening. After going home empty-handed four times previously, Leonardo DiCaprio won his first Oscar, for a best actor in 'The Revenant' — a gruff, grunting performance that traded little on the actor's youthful charisma. DiCaprio, greeted with a standing ovation, took the moment to talk about climate change.
"Let us not take our planet for granted," he said. "I do not take tonight for granted."
His director, Inarritu won back-to-back directing awards after the triumph last year of 'Birdman'. It's a feat matched by only two other filmmakers: John Ford and Joseph L. Mankiewicz. 'The Revenant' also won best cinematography for Emmanuel Lubezki, who became the first cinematographer to win three times in a row (following wins for 'Gravity' and 'Birdman'), and only the seventh to three-peat in Oscar history.
Inarritu, whose win meant three straight years of Mexican filmmakers winning best director, was one of the few winners to remark passionately on diversity in his acceptance speech.
"What a great opportunity for our generation to really liberate ourselves from all prejudice and this tribal thinking and to make sure for once and forever that the color of our skin becomes as irrelevant as the length of our hair," said Inarritu.
The night's most-awarded film, however, went to neither 'Spotlight' nor 'The Revenant'. George Miller's post-apocalyptic chase film, 'Mad Max: Fury Road' sped away with six awards in technical categories for editing, makeup, production design, sound editing, sound mixing and costume design. Roundly acclaimed for its old-school craft, Miller's 'Mad Max' was assured of becoming the evening's most awarded film.
"Us Mad Maxes are doing OK tonight," said editor Margaret Sixel, who's also Miller's wife. The flurry of wins brought a parade of Australian craftsmen onstage, including sound editor Mark Mangini, who celebrated with a loud expletive.
Best actress went to Brie Larson, the 26-year-old breakout of the mother-son captive drama 'Room'.
But the wins at times felt secondary to the sharp, unflinching hosting of Rock, in his second go around. His much anticipated opening monologue left few disappointed.
"Is Hollywood racist? You're damn right it's racist," said Rock, who also sought to put the issue in perspective. "Hollywood is sorority racist. It's like: We like you Rhonda, but you're not a Kappa."
Rock had stayed quiet before the ceremony as the controversy raged over the second straight year of all-white acting nominees, leaving Hollywood and viewers eagerly awaiting his one-liners. He confessed that he deliberated over joining the Oscars boycott and bowing out as host, but concluded: "The last thing I need is to lose another job to Kevin Hart."
There was another major surprise Sunday. The supporting actor win for Mark Rylance over Sylvester Stallone drew gasps. Stallone, nominated a second time 39 years later for the role of Rocky Balboa, had been expected to win his first acting Oscar for the 'Rocky' sequel 'Creed'. He instead lost to the famed stage actor who co-starred in Steven Spielberg's 'Bridge of Spies'.
Adam McKay and Charles Randolph took best adapted screenplay for their self-described "trauma-dy" about the mortgage meltdown of 2008. McKay thanked Paramount Pictures for taking a risk on a movie about "financial esoterica." Best known for broader comedies like 'Anchorman' and 'Step Brothers,' McKay gave an election-year warning to power of "big money" and "weirdo billionaires" in the presidential campaign.
Talk of election was otherwise largely absent the ceremony, though Vice President Joe Biden (whose presence added even greater security to the Dolby Theatre) was met by a standing ovation before talking about sexual assault on college campuses before introducing best-song nominee Lady Gaga.
Best supporting actress went Alicia Vikander for the transgender pioneer tale 'The Danish Girl'. Vikander, the 27-year-old Sweden-born actress was ubiquitous in 2015, also winning awards for her performance in the sci-fi 'Ex Machina'.
Best animated feature film went to 'Inside Out', Pixar's eighth win in the category since it was created in 2001. Asif Kapadia's Amy Winehouse portrait, 'Amy', took best documentary. Hungary scored its second best foreign language Oscar for Laszlo Nemes' 'Son of Saul', a harrowing drama set within a concentration camp.
"Even in the darkest hours of mankind, there might be a voice within us that allows us to remain human," said Nemes. "That's the hope of this film."
The Academy Awards, normally decorous and predictable, were charged with enough politics and uncertainty to rival an election debate. Down the street from the Dolby Theatre, Sharpton led several dozen demonstrators in protest against a second straight year of all-white acting nominees.
"This will be the last night of an all-white Oscars," Sharpton vowed at the rally.
The nominees restored the hashtag "OscarsSoWhite' to prominence and led Spike Lee (an honorary Oscar winner this year) and Jada Pinkett Smith to announce that they would not attend the show. Several top African American filmmakers, Ryan Coogler ('Creed') and Ava DuVernay ('Selma') spent the evening not at the Oscars but in Flint, Mich., raising money for the water-contaminated city.
Aside from pleading for more opportunity for black actors, Rock also sought to add perspective to the turmoil. Rock said this year didn't differ much from Oscar history, but black people in earlier decades were "too busy being raped and lynched to worry about who won best cinematographer."
In a quick response to the growing crisis, Cheryl Boone Isaacs, president of the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences, pushed ahead reforms to the academy intended to diversify its overwhelming white and male membership. But those changes (which included stripping older, out-of-work members of their voting privileges) precipitated a backlash, too. A chorus of academy members challenged the reforms.
In remarks during the show by the president — usually one of the sleepiest moments in the broadcast — Boone Isaacs strongly defended the changes, quoting Martin Luther King Jr. and urging each Oscar attendee to bring greater opportunity to the industry. She was received politely, if not enthusiastically, by the audience.
"It's not enough to listen and agree," said Boone Isaacs. "We must take action."
How the controversy will affect ratings for ABC is one of the night's big questions. Last year's telecast, hosted by Neil Patrick Harris, slid 16 percent to 36.6 million viewers, a six-year low.

जेएनयू प्रकरण: सियासत हो या कार्यवाही

वित्त मंत्री अरुण जेटली ने तीसरी बार सोमवार को आम बजट पेश किया। इस बजट से मध्यम वर्ग को बहुत सारी उम्मीदें थीं लेकिन बजट की घोषणाओं से मध्यम वर्ग को निराशा हाथ लगी है। मध्यम वर्ग को सबसे ज्यादा उम्मीद आय कर स्लैब में बदलाव को लेकर थी लेकिन वित्त मंत्री ने आय कर स्लैब में कोई बदलाव नहीं किया है बल्कि सर्विस टैक्स में 0.5 फीसदी का इजाफा कर जोर का झटका दिया है। बजट में सर्विस टैक्स 14.5 फीसदी से बढ़कर 15 फीसदी कर दिया गया है। यानी सर्विस टैक्स से जुड़ी सभी सेवाएं महंगी हो जाएंगी। सर्विस टैक्स में 0.5 फीसदी का कृषि कल्याण कर लगाया गया है।    
नई दिल्ली : वित्त मंत्री अरुण जेटली ने तीसरी बार सोमवार को आम बजट पेश किया। इस बजट से मध्यम वर्ग को बहुत सारी उम्मीदें थीं लेकिन बजट की घोषणाओं से मध्यम वर्ग को निराशा हाथ लगी है। मध्यम वर्ग को सबसे ज्यादा उम्मीद आय कर स्लैब में बदलाव को लेकर थी लेकिन वित्त मंत्री ने आय कर स्लैब में कोई बदलाव नहीं किया है बल्कि सर्विस टैक्स में 0.5 फीसदी का इजाफा कर जोर का झटका दिया है। बजट में सर्विस टैक्स 14.5 फीसदी से बढ़कर 15 फीसदी कर दिया गया है। यानी सर्विस टैक्स से जुड़ी सभी सेवाएं महंगी हो जाएंगी। सर्विस टैक्स में 0.5 फीसदी का कृषि कल्याण कर लगाया गया है।    
सर्विस टैक्स बढ़ने का सीधा असर आम आदमी के जन-जीवन पर होगा। सर्विस टैक्स बढ़ने से हर सेवा महंगी हो जाएगी। मसलन हवाई यात्रा, एटीएम से पैसे निकालना, रेस्तरां में खाना, फिल्म देखना, मोबाइल बिल, जिम, ब्यूटी पार्लर जाना और रेल टिकट भी महंगा होगा। महंगाई की मार बीमा पॉलिसी पर भी पड़ेगी। यही नहीं सर्विस टैक्स बढ़ने से सिगरेट, सिगार, गुटखा और पान मसाला महंगा हो जाएगा। बजट में छोटी-बड़ी सभी तरह की कारें भी महंगी कर दी गई हैं। ब्रांडेड कपड़ों को लेकर भी आपको अब ज्यादा कीमत चुकानी होगी।
वित्त मंत्री ने सलाना ढाई लाख रुपए की आमदनी को टैक्स के दायरे से बाहर रखा है। यानी सलाना ढाई लाख रुपए की आय करने वाले लोगों को आय कर नहीं देना होगा जबकि 2.5 लाख रुपए से 5 लाख रुपए तक की सालाना आमदनी पर 10 फीसदी की दर से टैक्स लगता है। वहीं 5 लाख रुपए से 10 लाख रुपए तक की सालाना आमदनी पर 20 फीसदी और 10 लाख रुपए से ज्यादा की सालाना आमदनी पर 30 फीसदी की दर से इनकम टैक्स लगाया जाता है। सीनियर सिटीजन को 3 लाख रुपए तक की सालाना आमदनी पर 10 फीसदी की दर से टैक्स देना होता है। जबकि महिलाओं को तीन लाख रुपए की सलाना आमदनी पर कोई आयकर नहीं देना होता है। महिलाओं को 3 लाख से पांच लाख रुपए तक 10 फीसदी, 5 लाख से 10 लाख रुपए तक- 20 फीसदी, 10 लाख रुपए से ऊपर 30 फीसदी आयकर देना होता है।
कहा जा सकता है कि जिस मध्यमवर्ग के दम पर नरेंद्र मोदी प्रधानमंत्री बने और एनडीए सत्ता में आया, उसी मिडिल क्लास की उम्मीदों पर सरकार ने पानी फेर दिया है। आम बजट 2016-17 में मध्यम वर्ग को मामूली राहत दी गई है उसके बदले में उस पर महंगाई का बोझ डाल दिया गया है। वित्त मंत्री ने हालांकि मिडिल क्लास को कुछ राहत देने की घोषणा की है। अगर आप 50 लाख तक का मकान खरीदते हैं तो आपको 50 हजार रुपए की अतिरिक्त छूट मिलेगी। हालांकि यह पहली बार मकान खरीदने वालों के लिए ही होगी।

ताकि पेडों की छांव बनी रहे।

विकास के नाम पर जहां एक तरफ हम पेड़ों की अंधाधुंध कटाई के लिए 'कुल्हाड़ी' उठाए तत्पर हैं। वहीं, दूसरी तरफ विभिन्न शहरों में कुछ हाथ पेड़ों के संरक्षण के लिए मुठ्ठी बांधे बुलंद हैं। मेरी दिलचस्पी ऐसे ही हाथों के प्रति है। वर्षों पहले मेरे गृहराज्य में पेड़ों को काटने के विरोध में एक महान आंदोलन का सूत्रपात हुआ। दुर्भाग्यवश! मैं उस 'चिपको आंदोलन' को अपनी आंखों से नहीं देख पाया। लेकिन, मेरी कल्पनाओं में पेड़ों से चिपकी पहाड़ी औरतें हमेशा कई विंब बनाती रहीं। 

मैं अपने आस-पास गौरा देवी, सुंदरलाल बहुगुणा की छवि को महसूस करते रहा। वक्त बीतने के साथ पेड़ों की छांव अतीत बनती गई और संकरी उबड़-खाबड़ गलियों में लहलहाते पत्तों की कल्पना में कई साल बीत गए। हालांकि, प्रकृति के पास लौटने की छटपटाहट बनी रही। इन शब्दों को लिखते वक्त भी बनी हुई है और आगे भी बनी ही रहेगी! कब तक यह कहना मुश्किल है। अगर हम पेड़ों के प्रति इसी तरह उदासीन बने रहे तो वो दिन दूर नहीं जब 'हरियाली' कहानी भर रह जाएगी। मनुष्य की इस उदासीन प्रवृत्ति पर कवि मित्र राधाकांत पांडेय कहते हैं 

मौसम सुहाना, था वो गुजरा ज़माना कहे
हमने करीं हैं जो नदानी, रह जाएगी
गौर से सुनो हवा का झोंका कहे बार-बार
सम्हले नहीं तो ये कहानी रह जाएगी
पेड़ ही नहीं बचे तो दुनिया बचेगी कैसे
और सोचो कैसे ज़िंदगानी रह जाएगी
उड़ते परिन्दे आसमान से चले गए हैं
कोयल की कूंक न निशानी रह जाएगी

शहरों की आपाधापी और भागदौड़ भरी जीवनशैली में झकड़े लोगों के पास 'सर' उठाकर पेड़ों की तरफ देखने का वक्त तक नहीं है। वैसे तो शहरों में पेड़ों के दर्शन ही दुर्लभ हैं लेकिन जहां होते भी हैं तो लोग उदासीन नजर आते हैं। हालांकि, कुछ ऐसे भी लोग हैं जो प्रकृति के संरक्षण और संवर्धन के लिए कई सालों से प्रयासरत हैं। दिल्ली जैसे विशाल और चकाचौंध भरे शहर में पद्मावती द्विवेदी पिछले कई सालों से पेड़ों को कंक्रीट मुक्त करने और उनके संरक्षण और संवर्धन के लिए काम कर रही हैं। उन्होंने साल 2005 में सर्वोदय इन्कलेव से पेड़ों को बीमारियों से बचाने और उनको कंक्रीट मुक्त करने का अभियान चलाया और धीरे-धीरे जनता इसके साथ जुड़ती गई। पहली बार मैंने जब इस मुहिम के बारे में सुना तो मुझे यकीन ही नहीं हुआ कि रफ्तारनुमा इस शहर में पेड़ों के प्रति इतने संवेदनशील लोग भी रहते हैं। 

आंध्र प्रदेश के एक छोटे से गांव से संबंध रखने वाली पद्मावती ने दिल्ली के सर्वोदय इन्कलेव में 700 के करीब और कुतुब गोल्फ रोड पर 50 से ज्यादा पेड़ों को कंक्रीट मुक्त कराया है। पद्मावती बताती हैं कि उनके दादा-दादी आंध्र प्रदेश में गोदावरी नदी से सटे गांव में रहते थे। बचपन में गर्मियों की छुट्टियां गांव में ही बितती थी। गांवों में तारकोल और सीमेंट से पेड़ों की घेराबंदी नहीं की जाती है। पेड़ों को स्वाभाविक स्थिति में बढ़ने के लिए छोड़ दिया जाता है। जबकि इसके इतर शहरों में पेड़ों की घेराबंदी कर दी जाती है। ऐसे में बारिश की बूंदें पेड़ों की जड़ों तक नहीं पहुंच पाती हैं और पेड़ बीमारियों से संक्रमित हो जाते हैं।

पेड़ों को तारकोल से मुक्त करने के साथ ही पेड़ों की जनगणना के लिए भी दिल्ली के विभिन्न स्कूल, कॉलेजों और कॉलोनियों में समूह बनाए गए हैं। इन समूहों का काम अपनी-अपनी कॉलोनियों में पेड़ों की जनगणना करना है। सर्वोदय इन्कलेव, वसंत विहार, गुलमोहर पार्क, श्रीराम स्कूल गुड़गांव, सिस्टर निवेदिता स्कूल, रामजस स्कूल, जाकीर हुसैन कॉलेज, गार्गी कॉलेज और जानकी देवी मेमोरियल कॉलेज में पेड़ों के संरक्षण और सेंसस के लिए ट्रेनिग भी दी जा रही है।  पद्मावती बताती हैं कि दिल्ली नगर निगम के बागवानी विभाग ने बीमार पेड़ों के इलाज में हमारी मदद की और पेड़ों के संरक्षण के इस मुहिम में अपने योगदान दिया। पेड़ों के संरक्षण और संवर्धन के लिए सामाजिक कार्यकर्ताओं और पर्यावरणविदों के साथ मिलकर काम किया जा रहा है।

दिल्ली के अलावा बेंगलुरु और वृंदावन में भी ऐसे कई ग्रुप हैं जो पेड़ों के संरक्षण के लिए काम कर रहे हैं। अगर शहरों की जनता पेड़ों के संरक्षण के प्रति सचेत हो जाएगी तो खोई हरियाली फिर से लौट आएगी और सुस्ताने के लिए पेड़ों की छांव बची रहेगी। 

Sunday, 21 February 2016

Cyber Crime


   [Mass Communication]



Thanks to my  friends for their help and support

God, who looks after me

Subhash Tomar, for his suggestions at all stages, when I was working on this project.

Sehar Mustaque, Prateek Gupta, Internet links(about which I mentioned in Refrence), Wikipedia and Encyclopedia for their help in research.


1.      Acknowledgement

2.      Index

3.      Introduction

4.      Certification

5.      Rationate

6.      Methodology

7.      Results

8.      Why Should We know About Cyber Crime

9.      Objectives

10.      Here are the most common cyber crimes

11.      Case Study Of Cyber Crime

12.      Cyber Law

13.      Conclusion

14.      Biblography

15.      Refrence    


 Cyber crime is         criminal activity done   using computers and the internet.

Cybercrime is a range of illegal digital activities targeted at organisations in order to cause harm. The term applies to a wide range of targets and attack methods. It can range from mere web site defacements to grave activities such as service disruptions that impact business revenues to e-banking frauds


The Internet is one of the world’s great inventions expanding the way many people live their lives.

However, it is also a ‘double-edged sword.’

While people are enjoying the advantages brought by computer and the internet, criminals also see new opportunities. Not only are conventional crimes, such as disseminating child-pornography, illegal online-gambling and fraud, facilitated by computer and the Internet, It is itself has also attracted a new breed users including hackers, crackers and cyber terrorists. Both individual users and nation states are vulnerable to cyber criminals.


Cyber Crime is one of the most crime among youngsters. We could  say that social media is a kind of medium of cyber crime.

Here, everyone want to be on social media. Well I have read a lot of cases of cyber crime at news and social media.

So, I just want to spread awareness about it as much as I can through my project.      So that, people would understand it properly and could save their life to its dark side.


Cybercrime Tools and Methods

Cybercriminals are using numerous illegal tools: keylogging—using software or devices to secretly monitor and record keystrokes, enabling espionage activities or the harvesting of personal data; distributed denial of service (DDoS)—inundating computer system resources with tasks sufficient to render them unavailable to authorized users; pharming—directing traffic from a legitimate Web site to a site controlled by a criminal hacker; phishing—illegally accessing an individual’s financial data to capture online banking and financial information; and, most recently, botnets—networks of infected machines, usually managed by a single command center, that are capable of causing serious damage to networked systems and enabling large-scale identity theft. Hackers obtain botnets commercially, using them to access bank accounts. In her discussion of the threat of cybercrime to Russian society, Vanessa Vitaline identifies keylogging as a general threat and notes that DDoS attacks are a threat to companies and governments. A study of the illegal use of personal information in Russia, notes the rapid growth of phishing since 2000, with phishers successfully tricking customers into revealing passwords and personal identification numbers, thereby enabling access to bank accounts and credit cards.


Distinctly, about 51 per cent perceive themselves to be an easy target for cyber attacks due to the nature of their business. Out of these 51 per cent, about 68 per cent respondents claim that they monitor their cybercrime threats on a daily basis.

Inadequate detection processes may conceal the real number of cybercrime attacks. Although many organisations today are equipped with state of the art security systems, they may still be unable to manage or handle cybercrime incidents.

What does it mean…..??


A Prefix used in a growing no of term to describe new things that are being made possible by the spread of Computers. Anything related to the internet also falls under the cyber category.

Cyber Space

Cyber Space is “the national environment in which communication over computer network occurs”

The term cyber space has become a conventional means to describe anything  associated with the Internet.

Cyber Crime

What is cybercrime?

Cybercrime is a range of illegal digital activities targeted at organisations in order to cause harm. The term applies to a wide range of targets and attack methods. It can range from mere web site defacements to grave activities such as service disruptions that impact business revenues to e-banking frauds.

Why Should We Know About Cyber Crime…?

There’s no doubt that Cyber Crime has completely revolutionized the way people interact. But there’s a dark side to the world’s love affair with social media. Criminals are finding new ways to utilize to commit new and disturbing crimes. That’s why if you want to continue to enjoy social media, you should be aware of the common crimes committed on Internet, so that you can avoid becoming a victim.

*    In this tech-savvy world of 21st century everyone is engaged with internet, through whatsapp, twitter, facebook and net-banking & lots of other platforms are there.

*                       Some criminal minded persons commit crimes here, which is included under cyber-crimes.

*                       So we should be aware about crimes happening around in the cyber-space.


*             To recognize cyber-crime methods

*         To know the importance of cyber-law

*      To learn how to keep away from being a victim

*      To provide a general awareness of cyber-crimes

Here are the most common crimes


A “hacker ” is someone who gains illegal access to computers. This action can be done maliciously or with the intent of pointing out possible security risks. Microsoft corporation, the American multi-national computer technology corporation, and the department of defence are among those large organizations that have been the target of hackers. Hacking poses a risk to society as hackers can gain access to sensitive financial, personal, or security information that can be used for extortion or exploited for an attack. Hacking can be understood as the cyber-version of industrial espionage.

Child Pornography

The issue of child pornography has become more important due to its widespread distribution and availability on the internet. Child pornography is widely seen as a form of child abuse and its preduction, distribution and possession is outlawed is most countries.

Prohibition may include images or videos of children engaged in sexual acts or of nude children. Many American states have made efforts to pass legislation outlawing its transmission via the Internet.

Identity theft

The term “Identity theft” encompasses a broad range of identification-based crimes. It can be sub-divided into four categories: Financial identity, Criminal identity theft, Identity cloning and Business/Commercial identity theft.

There are a number of methods used by identity thieves including stealing mail or rummaging through public transactions to obtain personal data, stealing personal information, impersonating a trusted organization in an electronic communication and the use of spam.

Surveys in the United States from 2003 to 2006 showed a decrease in the total number of victims but an increase in the total value of  identity fraud to US$56.6 billion in 2006.

Internet fraud

The term “Internet fraud” generally refers to any type of fraud scheme that uses one or more online services-such as chat rooms, E-mail, message boards, or websites-to present fraudulent solicitations to prospective victims, to conduct fraudulent transactions, or to transmit the proceeds of fraud to financial institutions or to others connected with the scheme. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and police agencies worldwide have people assigned to combat this type of fraud.

Internet fraud is committed in several ways. In some cases, fictitious merchants advertise goods for very low prices and never deliver. However, that type of fraud is minuscule compared to criminals using stole credit card information to buy goods and services.


Criminals have been utilizing the scam for centuries. In the Internet world, scams are particularly effective at drawing people in by simply enticing an individual to click on a link that would interest almost anyone, such as an innocent-looking notification that you’ve won a free prize like a gift card. Then, in order to claim the prize, scammers require you to submit some information, such as a credit card number or Social Security number. This description may make it seem like scams are easy to spot, but even the most savvy social media user has to be on the lookout for illegitimate requests for information.

Cyber bullying is a common occurrence among teenagers on Internet and one that can result in serious criminal charges if it goes far enough. Cyber bullying has contributed to the deaths of several teens who either committed suicide or were killed by a peer. Cyber bullying that involves hacking or password and identity theft may be punishable under state and federal law. When adults engage in this kind of online behaviour it is called cyber-harassment or cyber stalking.

The term “stalking” is thrown around a lot on Internet, and it is often meant as a joke for regularly looking at someone’s profile. However, the actual act of cyber stalking is a common crime on the social networking site and can result in a serious offense. Cyber stalking typically involves harassing a person with messages, written threats, and other persistent online behaviour that endangers a person’s safety. Although cyber stalking may seem like nothing more than annoying behaviour, it is a legitimate cause for concern in many cases and can even lead to in-person stalking or endangerment if not treated seriously.

It doesn’t take much for a thief to find out where you live, go to school, work, or hang out if you make that information readily available on Social Media. If you use Social Media’s check-in or Google Maps feature, then you could be in a heap of trouble if a robber is paying attention. This person isn’t always a complete stranger either; they may be an old acquaintance or someone else you’d never expect to come rob you.

With the large amount of personal information swarming around Internet these days, it has become fairly easy for criminals to steal users’ identities. Hackers often break into users’ e-mails and make fake Social Media’s accounts. From there they can access personal and bank information and cause havoc to your sense of security. Protect yourself from identity theft on Social Media by keeping your profile very secure and free of personal information that a criminal would love to have. 

Harassment happens all the time on Social Media. From sexual harassment to assault threats, there has been a significant increase in the number of harassment cases happening on Social Media. It’s not uncommon for sex offenders and sexual predators to prey on unsuspecting victims on Social Media and even pose as a teen or college student. Harassing messages, inappropriate comments, and other persistent behaviours should be reported to your local police station.

Case study of Cyber stalking :-

Seema Khanna (name changed),

an employee with an

embassy in New Delhi, know that web surfing would lead to an invasion of her privacy.

In an apparent case of cyber stalking, Khanna (32) received a series of mails from a man asking her to either pose in the

nude for him or pay Rs 1 lakh to him. In her complaint to Delhi Police, the woman said she started receiving these messages in the third week of November. The accused threatened Khanna that he would put her morphed

pictures on display at sex websites , along with her telephone number and address. He also allegedly threatened to put up these pictures in her neighbourhood in southwest Delhi."Initially, she ignored the messages , but soon she started receiving letters through post, repeating the same threat. She was forced to report the matter to the police," said an officer with cyber crime cell.That, however, was not the end of her ordeal. The accused messaged the woman her photographs .The police said the accused had hacked her username and password which enabled him to access the pictures.A preliminary inquiry into the complaint has revealed that the

1.                  messages were sent to the victim from a cyber cafe in south Delhi."We hope to trace the accused soon," said deputy commisioner of police (crime) Dependra Pathak.The police feel the accused might be known to the victim as he seemed to know a lot about her.

Preventing cybercrime

In order to combat cybercrime a number of precautions and preventions measures may be taken. These include the use of anti-virus software on computers, encryption of data used in online and credit card sales, and increasing public awareness of the types of scams and other attacks on computers and networks.

Cyber Crimes Comes Under Section 66A Of The IT act 2000:-

What is section 66Aof the IT act 2000?

The Information Technology Act 2000 was drafted in order to regularise the contents or documents that are broadcasted via any communication medium like computer, internet, press etc. It has 92 sections. In particular, Section 66A was drafted to tackle the information that was being circulated via any communication devices like mobile phones and computers. The Act says, “any person who sends, by means of a computer resource or a communication device,

 a)  any information that is grossly offensive or has menacing character,

b)  any information which he knows to be false, but for the purpose of causing annoyance, inconvenience,  danger, obstruction, insult, injury, criminal intimidation, enmity, hatred, or ill will, persistently by making use of such computer resource or a communication device,

 c)  any electronic mail or electronic mail message for the purpose of causing annoyance or inconvenience or to deceive or to mislead the addressee or recipient about the origin of such messages, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and with fine."Experts of the of the IT Act have heavily criticised the section for having adopted from the UK Communication Act 2003 and the Communications Act 1988. Both the acts are applicable only when the communication is directed to a specific person. Snehashish Ghosh, Policy Associate at Centre for Internet and Society, says in The Business Line: “Section 1 of the Malicious Prosecution Act begins stating that, “any person who sends to another person.” Therefore it is clear that the provision does not include any post or electronic communication which is broadcasted to the world and deals with only one-to-one communication.”


Academic researchers who have evaluated the scope of cybercrime activities and the impact of cybercrime on society agree that this type of crime is global and that it is growing and diversifying rapidly. There will always be new and unexpected challenges to stay ahead of cyber criminals and cyber terrorists but we can win only through partnership and collaboration of both individuals and government. There is much we can do to ensure a safe, secure and trustworthy computing environment. It is crucial not only to our national sense of well-being, but also to our national security and economy.


Threat to Government Data Systems

Government researchers, particularly in Sweden, a country that suffers from one of the highest incidents of cybercrime in the world, acknowledge the vulnerabilities of government systems in the face of the threat to information security, both within their own countries and throughout the world. “Information security in Sweden - An overview,” an official report of the Swedish government, urges cooperation among all parties involved in information protection. The report warns both service providers and users to protect their data systems from a wide variety of threats: physical threats, weapons, and viruses, some of which are widespread enough to constitute epidemics.


·  dreyfus, Suelette (1997).Underground: Tales of  hacking, Madnesss and Obsession on the electronic frontier.Mandarin. ISBN 1863305955. Retrieved July 19, 2007

·  New World Encyclopedia – cyber space

·  Webpedia – cyber