Sunday, 21 February 2016

Cyber Crime


   [Mass Communication]



Thanks to my  friends for their help and support

God, who looks after me

Subhash Tomar, for his suggestions at all stages, when I was working on this project.

Sehar Mustaque, Prateek Gupta, Internet links(about which I mentioned in Refrence), Wikipedia and Encyclopedia for their help in research.


1.      Acknowledgement

2.      Index

3.      Introduction

4.      Certification

5.      Rationate

6.      Methodology

7.      Results

8.      Why Should We know About Cyber Crime

9.      Objectives

10.      Here are the most common cyber crimes

11.      Case Study Of Cyber Crime

12.      Cyber Law

13.      Conclusion

14.      Biblography

15.      Refrence    


 Cyber crime is         criminal activity done   using computers and the internet.

Cybercrime is a range of illegal digital activities targeted at organisations in order to cause harm. The term applies to a wide range of targets and attack methods. It can range from mere web site defacements to grave activities such as service disruptions that impact business revenues to e-banking frauds


The Internet is one of the world’s great inventions expanding the way many people live their lives.

However, it is also a ‘double-edged sword.’

While people are enjoying the advantages brought by computer and the internet, criminals also see new opportunities. Not only are conventional crimes, such as disseminating child-pornography, illegal online-gambling and fraud, facilitated by computer and the Internet, It is itself has also attracted a new breed users including hackers, crackers and cyber terrorists. Both individual users and nation states are vulnerable to cyber criminals.


Cyber Crime is one of the most crime among youngsters. We could  say that social media is a kind of medium of cyber crime.

Here, everyone want to be on social media. Well I have read a lot of cases of cyber crime at news and social media.

So, I just want to spread awareness about it as much as I can through my project.      So that, people would understand it properly and could save their life to its dark side.


Cybercrime Tools and Methods

Cybercriminals are using numerous illegal tools: keylogging—using software or devices to secretly monitor and record keystrokes, enabling espionage activities or the harvesting of personal data; distributed denial of service (DDoS)—inundating computer system resources with tasks sufficient to render them unavailable to authorized users; pharming—directing traffic from a legitimate Web site to a site controlled by a criminal hacker; phishing—illegally accessing an individual’s financial data to capture online banking and financial information; and, most recently, botnets—networks of infected machines, usually managed by a single command center, that are capable of causing serious damage to networked systems and enabling large-scale identity theft. Hackers obtain botnets commercially, using them to access bank accounts. In her discussion of the threat of cybercrime to Russian society, Vanessa Vitaline identifies keylogging as a general threat and notes that DDoS attacks are a threat to companies and governments. A study of the illegal use of personal information in Russia, notes the rapid growth of phishing since 2000, with phishers successfully tricking customers into revealing passwords and personal identification numbers, thereby enabling access to bank accounts and credit cards.


Distinctly, about 51 per cent perceive themselves to be an easy target for cyber attacks due to the nature of their business. Out of these 51 per cent, about 68 per cent respondents claim that they monitor their cybercrime threats on a daily basis.

Inadequate detection processes may conceal the real number of cybercrime attacks. Although many organisations today are equipped with state of the art security systems, they may still be unable to manage or handle cybercrime incidents.

What does it mean…..??


A Prefix used in a growing no of term to describe new things that are being made possible by the spread of Computers. Anything related to the internet also falls under the cyber category.

Cyber Space

Cyber Space is “the national environment in which communication over computer network occurs”

The term cyber space has become a conventional means to describe anything  associated with the Internet.

Cyber Crime

What is cybercrime?

Cybercrime is a range of illegal digital activities targeted at organisations in order to cause harm. The term applies to a wide range of targets and attack methods. It can range from mere web site defacements to grave activities such as service disruptions that impact business revenues to e-banking frauds.

Why Should We Know About Cyber Crime…?

There’s no doubt that Cyber Crime has completely revolutionized the way people interact. But there’s a dark side to the world’s love affair with social media. Criminals are finding new ways to utilize to commit new and disturbing crimes. That’s why if you want to continue to enjoy social media, you should be aware of the common crimes committed on Internet, so that you can avoid becoming a victim.

*    In this tech-savvy world of 21st century everyone is engaged with internet, through whatsapp, twitter, facebook and net-banking & lots of other platforms are there.

*                       Some criminal minded persons commit crimes here, which is included under cyber-crimes.

*                       So we should be aware about crimes happening around in the cyber-space.


*             To recognize cyber-crime methods

*         To know the importance of cyber-law

*      To learn how to keep away from being a victim

*      To provide a general awareness of cyber-crimes

Here are the most common crimes


A “hacker ” is someone who gains illegal access to computers. This action can be done maliciously or with the intent of pointing out possible security risks. Microsoft corporation, the American multi-national computer technology corporation, and the department of defence are among those large organizations that have been the target of hackers. Hacking poses a risk to society as hackers can gain access to sensitive financial, personal, or security information that can be used for extortion or exploited for an attack. Hacking can be understood as the cyber-version of industrial espionage.

Child Pornography

The issue of child pornography has become more important due to its widespread distribution and availability on the internet. Child pornography is widely seen as a form of child abuse and its preduction, distribution and possession is outlawed is most countries.

Prohibition may include images or videos of children engaged in sexual acts or of nude children. Many American states have made efforts to pass legislation outlawing its transmission via the Internet.

Identity theft

The term “Identity theft” encompasses a broad range of identification-based crimes. It can be sub-divided into four categories: Financial identity, Criminal identity theft, Identity cloning and Business/Commercial identity theft.

There are a number of methods used by identity thieves including stealing mail or rummaging through public transactions to obtain personal data, stealing personal information, impersonating a trusted organization in an electronic communication and the use of spam.

Surveys in the United States from 2003 to 2006 showed a decrease in the total number of victims but an increase in the total value of  identity fraud to US$56.6 billion in 2006.

Internet fraud

The term “Internet fraud” generally refers to any type of fraud scheme that uses one or more online services-such as chat rooms, E-mail, message boards, or websites-to present fraudulent solicitations to prospective victims, to conduct fraudulent transactions, or to transmit the proceeds of fraud to financial institutions or to others connected with the scheme. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and police agencies worldwide have people assigned to combat this type of fraud.

Internet fraud is committed in several ways. In some cases, fictitious merchants advertise goods for very low prices and never deliver. However, that type of fraud is minuscule compared to criminals using stole credit card information to buy goods and services.


Criminals have been utilizing the scam for centuries. In the Internet world, scams are particularly effective at drawing people in by simply enticing an individual to click on a link that would interest almost anyone, such as an innocent-looking notification that you’ve won a free prize like a gift card. Then, in order to claim the prize, scammers require you to submit some information, such as a credit card number or Social Security number. This description may make it seem like scams are easy to spot, but even the most savvy social media user has to be on the lookout for illegitimate requests for information.

Cyber bullying is a common occurrence among teenagers on Internet and one that can result in serious criminal charges if it goes far enough. Cyber bullying has contributed to the deaths of several teens who either committed suicide or were killed by a peer. Cyber bullying that involves hacking or password and identity theft may be punishable under state and federal law. When adults engage in this kind of online behaviour it is called cyber-harassment or cyber stalking.

The term “stalking” is thrown around a lot on Internet, and it is often meant as a joke for regularly looking at someone’s profile. However, the actual act of cyber stalking is a common crime on the social networking site and can result in a serious offense. Cyber stalking typically involves harassing a person with messages, written threats, and other persistent online behaviour that endangers a person’s safety. Although cyber stalking may seem like nothing more than annoying behaviour, it is a legitimate cause for concern in many cases and can even lead to in-person stalking or endangerment if not treated seriously.

It doesn’t take much for a thief to find out where you live, go to school, work, or hang out if you make that information readily available on Social Media. If you use Social Media’s check-in or Google Maps feature, then you could be in a heap of trouble if a robber is paying attention. This person isn’t always a complete stranger either; they may be an old acquaintance or someone else you’d never expect to come rob you.

With the large amount of personal information swarming around Internet these days, it has become fairly easy for criminals to steal users’ identities. Hackers often break into users’ e-mails and make fake Social Media’s accounts. From there they can access personal and bank information and cause havoc to your sense of security. Protect yourself from identity theft on Social Media by keeping your profile very secure and free of personal information that a criminal would love to have. 

Harassment happens all the time on Social Media. From sexual harassment to assault threats, there has been a significant increase in the number of harassment cases happening on Social Media. It’s not uncommon for sex offenders and sexual predators to prey on unsuspecting victims on Social Media and even pose as a teen or college student. Harassing messages, inappropriate comments, and other persistent behaviours should be reported to your local police station.

Case study of Cyber stalking :-

Seema Khanna (name changed),

an employee with an

embassy in New Delhi, know that web surfing would lead to an invasion of her privacy.

In an apparent case of cyber stalking, Khanna (32) received a series of mails from a man asking her to either pose in the

nude for him or pay Rs 1 lakh to him. In her complaint to Delhi Police, the woman said she started receiving these messages in the third week of November. The accused threatened Khanna that he would put her morphed

pictures on display at sex websites , along with her telephone number and address. He also allegedly threatened to put up these pictures in her neighbourhood in southwest Delhi."Initially, she ignored the messages , but soon she started receiving letters through post, repeating the same threat. She was forced to report the matter to the police," said an officer with cyber crime cell.That, however, was not the end of her ordeal. The accused messaged the woman her photographs .The police said the accused had hacked her username and password which enabled him to access the pictures.A preliminary inquiry into the complaint has revealed that the

1.                  messages were sent to the victim from a cyber cafe in south Delhi."We hope to trace the accused soon," said deputy commisioner of police (crime) Dependra Pathak.The police feel the accused might be known to the victim as he seemed to know a lot about her.

Preventing cybercrime

In order to combat cybercrime a number of precautions and preventions measures may be taken. These include the use of anti-virus software on computers, encryption of data used in online and credit card sales, and increasing public awareness of the types of scams and other attacks on computers and networks.

Cyber Crimes Comes Under Section 66A Of The IT act 2000:-

What is section 66Aof the IT act 2000?

The Information Technology Act 2000 was drafted in order to regularise the contents or documents that are broadcasted via any communication medium like computer, internet, press etc. It has 92 sections. In particular, Section 66A was drafted to tackle the information that was being circulated via any communication devices like mobile phones and computers. The Act says, “any person who sends, by means of a computer resource or a communication device,

 a)  any information that is grossly offensive or has menacing character,

b)  any information which he knows to be false, but for the purpose of causing annoyance, inconvenience,  danger, obstruction, insult, injury, criminal intimidation, enmity, hatred, or ill will, persistently by making use of such computer resource or a communication device,

 c)  any electronic mail or electronic mail message for the purpose of causing annoyance or inconvenience or to deceive or to mislead the addressee or recipient about the origin of such messages, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and with fine."Experts of the of the IT Act have heavily criticised the section for having adopted from the UK Communication Act 2003 and the Communications Act 1988. Both the acts are applicable only when the communication is directed to a specific person. Snehashish Ghosh, Policy Associate at Centre for Internet and Society, says in The Business Line: “Section 1 of the Malicious Prosecution Act begins stating that, “any person who sends to another person.” Therefore it is clear that the provision does not include any post or electronic communication which is broadcasted to the world and deals with only one-to-one communication.”


Academic researchers who have evaluated the scope of cybercrime activities and the impact of cybercrime on society agree that this type of crime is global and that it is growing and diversifying rapidly. There will always be new and unexpected challenges to stay ahead of cyber criminals and cyber terrorists but we can win only through partnership and collaboration of both individuals and government. There is much we can do to ensure a safe, secure and trustworthy computing environment. It is crucial not only to our national sense of well-being, but also to our national security and economy.


Threat to Government Data Systems

Government researchers, particularly in Sweden, a country that suffers from one of the highest incidents of cybercrime in the world, acknowledge the vulnerabilities of government systems in the face of the threat to information security, both within their own countries and throughout the world. “Information security in Sweden - An overview,” an official report of the Swedish government, urges cooperation among all parties involved in information protection. The report warns both service providers and users to protect their data systems from a wide variety of threats: physical threats, weapons, and viruses, some of which are widespread enough to constitute epidemics.


·  dreyfus, Suelette (1997).Underground: Tales of  hacking, Madnesss and Obsession on the electronic frontier.Mandarin. ISBN 1863305955. Retrieved July 19, 2007

·  New World Encyclopedia – cyber space

·  Webpedia – cyber